Defined by the reader-text relationship:
In common usage, a phrase is usually a group of words with some special idiomatic meaning or other significance, such as " all rights reserved ", " economical with the truth ", " kick the bucket ", and the like. It may be a euphemisma saying or proverba fixed expressiona figure of speechetc.
In grammatical analysis, particularly in theories of syntaxa phrase is any group of words, or sometimes a single word, which plays a particular role within the grammatical structure of a sentence. It does not have to have any special meaning or significance, or even exist anywhere outside of the sentence being analyzed, but it must function there as a complete grammatical unit.
For example, in the sentence Yesterday I saw an orange bird with a white neck, the words an orange bird with a white neck form what is called a noun phraseor a determiner phrase in some theories, which functions as the object of the sentence.
Theorists of syntax differ in exactly what they regard as a phrase; however, it is usually required to be a constituent of a sentence, in that it must include all the dependents of the units that it contains.
This means that some An analysis of two key passages that may be called phrases in everyday language are not phrases in the technical sense. For example, in the sentence I can't put up with Alex, the words put up with meaning 'tolerate' may be referred to in common language as a phrase English expressions like this are frequently called phrasal verbs but technically they do not form a complete phrase, since they do not include Alex, which is the complement of the preposition with.
Heads and dependents[ edit ] In grammatical analysis, most phrases contain a key word that identifies the type and linguistic features of the phrase; this is known as the head-word, or the head. The syntactic category of the head is used to name the category of the phrase;  for example, a phrase whose head is a noun is called a noun phrase.
The remaining words in a phrase are called the dependents of the head. In the following phrases the head-word, or head, is bolded: For instance, the subordinator phrase: But this phrase, "before that happened", is more commonly classified in other grammars, including traditional English grammars, as a subordinate clause or dependent clause ; and it is then labelled not as a phrase, but as a clause.
Most theories of syntax view most phrases as having a head, but some non-headed phrases are acknowledged. A phrase lacking a head is known as exocentricand phrases with heads are endocentric.
Functional categories[ edit ] Some modern theories of syntax introduce certain functional categories in which the head of a phrase is some functional word or item, which may even be covertthat is, it may be a theoretical construct that need not appear explicitly in the sentence.
For example, in some theories, a phrase such as the man is taken to have the determiner the as its head, rather than the noun man — it is then classed as a determiner phrase DPrather than a noun phrase NP. When a noun is used in a sentence without an explicit determiner, a null covert determiner may be posited.
For full discussion, see Determiner phrase. Another type is the inflectional phrasewhere for example a finite verb phrase is taken to be the complement of a functional, possibly covert head denoted INFL which is supposed to encode the requirements for the verb to inflect — for agreement with its subject which is the specifier of INFLfor tense and aspectetc.
If these factors are treated separately, then more specific categories may be considered: Further examples of such proposed categories include topic phrase and focus phrase, which are assumed to be headed by elements that encode the need for a constituent of the sentence to be marked as the topic or as the focus.
See the Generative approaches section of the latter article for details. Phrase trees[ edit ] Many theories of syntax and grammar illustrate sentence structure using phrase ' trees ', which provide schematics of how the words in a sentence are grouped and relate to each other. Trees show the words, phrases, and, at times, clauses that make up sentences.
There are two established and competing principles for constructing trees; they produce 'constituency' and 'dependency' trees and both are illustrated here using an example sentence.
The constituency-based tree is on the left and the dependency-based tree is on the right: The tree on the left is of the constituency-based, phrase structure grammarand the tree on the right is of the dependency grammar.
The node labels in the two trees mark the syntactic category of the different constituentsor word elements, of the sentence. In the constituency tree each phrase is marked by a phrasal node NP, PP, VP ; and there are eight phrases identified by phrase structure analysis in the example sentence.
On the other hand, the dependency tree identifies a phrase by any node that exerts dependency upon, or dominates, another node. And, using dependency analysis, there are six phrases in the sentence. The trees and phrase-counts demonstrate that different theories of syntax differ in the word combinations they qualify as a phrase.
Here the constituency tree identifies three phrases that the dependency tree does not, namely: More analysis, including about the plausibilities of both grammars, can be made empirically by applying constituency tests. The everyday understanding of the phrase is that it consists of two or more words, whereas depending on the theory of syntax that one employs, individual words may or may not qualify as phrases.
Theories of syntax that employ X-bar theoryin contrast, will acknowledge many individual words as phrases. This practice is because sentence structure is analysed in terms of a universal schema, the X-bar schema, which sees each head as projecting at least three levels of structure:The genre of horror has ancient origins with roots in folklore and religious traditions, focusing on death, the afterlife, evil, the demonic and the principle of the thing embodied in the person.
These were manifested in stories of beings such as witches, vampires, werewolves and timberdesignmag.coman horror fiction became established through works by the Ancient Greeks and Ancient Romans.
Chapter Nine Reading Passage Mastery: Analyze the Answer Choices Just like Sentence Completion questions, Passage-Based Reading questions have two parts: a question stem and five answer choices: (E) appreciative In .
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In writing about literature or any specific text, you will strengthen your discussion if you offer specific passages from the text as evidence. Rather than simply dropping in quotations and expecting their significance and relevance to your argument to be self-evident, you need to provide sufficient analysis of the .
Reading Comprehension Passages and Questions Text Dependent Analysis Engage your students with high-interest reading comprehension passages designed for each INFORMATIONAL STANDARD.
Each lengthy passage is written with 3 differentiated reading levels with or without a dyslexic font to meet the needs of all your students.4/5(37). An analysis of two key passages from the same work may be “selected to explore, for example, contrasting prose styles, descriptive method, character presentation and a range of other aspects.
The candidate needs to justify briefly the pivotal nature of the passages chosen and to demonstrate their particular similarities and differences.