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The topic for addressing the students was festivals.

Related literature about student s honesty during examination

Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Influences on the dramatist Playwrights are affected, consciously or unconsciously, by the conditions under which they conceive and write, by their own socioeconomic status, by personal background, by religious or political position, and by their purpose in writing.

Auxiliary theatre arts such as music and design also have their own controlling traditions and conventions, which the playwright must respect. The size and shape of the playhouse, the nature of its stage and equipment, and the type of relationship it encourages between actor and audience also determine the character of the writing.

These are large considerations that can take the student of drama into areas of sociology, politics, social historyreligion, literary criticismphilosophy and aestheticsand beyond. The role of theory It is difficult to assess the influence of theory since theory usually is based on existing drama, rather than drama on theory.

Philosophers, critics, and dramatists have attempted both to describe what happens and to prescribe what should happen in drama, but all their theories are affected by what they have seen and read.

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Western theory In Europe the earliest extant work of dramatic theory, the fragmentary Poetics of Aristotle — bcechiefly reflecting his views on Greek tragedy and his favourite dramatist, Sophoclesis still relevant to an understanding of the elements of drama.

The concept in the Poetics that has most affected the composition of plays in later ages has been that of the so-called unities —that is, of time, place, and action. Aristotle was evidently describing what he observed—that a typical Greek tragedy had a single plot and action that lasts one day; he made no mention at all of unity of place.

Neoclassical critics of the 17th century, however, codified these discussions into rules. Considering the inconvenience of such rules and their final unimportance, one wonders at the extent of their influence.

The Renaissance desire to follow the ancients and its enthusiasm for decorum and classification may explain it in part. Happily, too, the popular drama, which followed the tastes of its patrons, also exerted a liberating influence. Only in Spain, where Lope de Vega published his New Art of Writing Playswritten out of his experience with popular audiences, was a commonsense voice raised against the classical rules, particularly on behalf of the importance of comedy and its natural mixture with tragedy.

With the classical straitjacket removed, there was a release of dramatic energies in new directions. But the way was open for the development of the middle-class drame bourgeois and the excursions of romanticism. Victor Hugoin the preface to his play Cromwellcapitalized on the new psychological romanticism of Goethe and Schiller as well as the popularity of the sentimental drame bourgeois in France and the growing admiration for Shakespeare; Hugo advocated truth to nature and a dramatic diversity that could yoke together the sublime and the grotesque.

The modern dramatist may be grateful to be no longer hidebound by theory and yet also regret, paradoxically, that contemporary theatre lacks those artificial limits within which an artifact of more certain efficiency can be wrought. Mordecai Gorelik Collection Eastern theory Asian theatre has always had such limits, but with neither the body of theory nor the pattern of rebellion and reaction found in the West.

The Sanskrit drama of Indiahowever, throughout its recorded existence has had the supreme authority of the Natya-shastraascribed to Bharata 1st century bce—3rd century cean exhaustive compendium of rules for all the performing arts but particularly for the sacred art of drama with its auxiliary arts of dance and music.

Not only does the Natya-shastra identify many varieties of gesture and movement, but it also describes the multiple patterns that drama can assume, similar to a modern treatise on musical form.

Every conceivable aspect of a play is treated, from the choice of metre in poetry to the range of moods a play can achieve, but perhaps its primary importance lies in its justification of the aesthetic of Indian drama as a vehicle of religious enlightenment. In Japan the most celebrated of early Noh writers, Zeami Motokiyowriting at the turn of the 15th century, left an influential collection of essays and notes to his son about his practice, and his deep knowledge of Zen Buddhism infused the Noh drama with ideals for the art that have persisted.

Three centuries later the outstanding dramatist Chikamatsu Monzaemon built equally substantial foundations for the Japanese puppet theatre, later known as Bunraku. His heroic plays for this theatre established an unassailable dramatic tradition of depicting an idealized life inspired by a rigid code of honour and expressed with extravagant ceremony and fervent lyricism.

Today these forms, together with the more aristocratic and intellectual Noh, constitute a classical theatre based on practice rather than on theory. They may be superseded as a result of the invasion of Western drama, but in their perfection they are unlikely to change. The role of music and dance The Sanskrit treatise Natya-shastra suggests that drama had its origin in the art of dance, and any survey of Western theatretoo, must recognize a comparable debt to music in the classical Greek drama, which is believed to have sprung from celebratory singing to Dionysus.

Similarly, the drama of the medieval church began with the chanted liturgies of the Roman mass. In the professional playhouses of the Renaissance and after, only rarely is music absent: The development of these forms, however, resulted in the belittling of the written drama, with the notable exception of the parodistic wit of W.

Gilbert at the turn of the 20th century. Since it is evident that drama often involves a balance of the arts, an understanding of their interrelationships is proper to a study of dramatic literature. The influence of theatre design Though apparently an elementary matter, the shape of the stage and auditorium probably offers the greatest single control over the text of the play that can be measured and tested.

Moreover, it is arguable that the playhouse architecture dictates more than any other single factor the style of a play, the conventions of its actingand the quality of dramatic effect felt by its audience.

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The shape of the theatre is always changing, so that to investigate its function is both to understand the past and to anticipate the future. Western theatre has broken away from the dominance of the Victorian picture-frame theatre, and therefore from the kind of experience this produced.

The difference resulted from the physical relationship between the audience and the actor in the two periods, a relationship that determined the kind of communication open to the playwright and the role the drama could play in society.

Three basic playhouse shapes have emerged in the history of the theatre: The arena stage To the arena, or theatre-in-the-roundbelongs the excitement of the circusthe bullring, and such sports as boxing and wrestling.

Characteristic of all these theatres is the bringing together of whole communities for a ritual experience; therefore, a sense of ritualistic intimacy and involvement is common to the content of the drama, and only the size of the audience changes the scale of the sung or spoken poetry.

Clearly, the idiom of realistic dialogue would have been inappropriate both to the occasion and the manner of such theatre.The Management Information Systems Student Organization (MISSO) strives to put each member in the best position to succeed as students and professionals.

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