Behaviorism[ edit ] This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century based on animal learning experiments by Ivan PavlovEdward ThorndikeEdward C. TolmanClark L. Hulland B.
Reflection Content Focus and Interaction Whether the learning outcomes for a session or module include declarative or functioning knowledge, almost all of them will be supported in some way by the presentation of information to students.
Typically, students are more likely to retain information presented in these ways if they are asked to interact with the material in some way, which is why it is useful to ask or invite questions, or include another activity type after every 5 or 15 minute 'chunk' of information.
Live Lecture Online or On campus Provide information orally, supported by slides, in 4 to 7 minute blocks, interspersed with short interactions such as asking students to respond to a related question.
After asking the question, wait 10 to 15 seconds before asking for volunteers, or calling on a randomly selected student to respond. It may be useful to provide a visual clue for students identifying that after posing the question you would like to them to consider a response and remain silent for the designated amount of time.
After a student has responded to the question, call on another student to summarise the first student's response. Alternatively, if the first response was not completely accurate, invite the second student to respond to the first student's answer e.
This activity would be particularly relevant for supporting student progress towards learning outcomes with declarative knowledge. Accompany the text with a number of questions which will help guide students' focus as they engage with the text. The questions could be provided for personal reflection, they could be addressed further in a subsequent synchronous session online or on-campusthey could be presented in the form of an online quiz weighted or unweighted or survey, or they could be required as part of an asynchronous activity online among other options and possibilities.
The questions posed, and how students are asked to respond to them will be dependent upon what the ILOs require students to do. For a unit with an ILO for students to 'evaluate', however, the questions might ask student to list advantages and disadvantages, or to compare and contrast different approaches noted in the text s.
Ask students to record their responses in a linked, editable MyLO survey. Below the questions and the survey link, embed a short video from YouTube, MyMedia, Vimeo etc that contains information answering the posed questions. Ask students to return to their survey answers with a link and update them with the new knowledge they have.
For ILOs that require 'critical reflection', however, the questions might ask students to complete SWOT components, or to present perspectives from a variety of stakeholders, fo example. Therefore, including learning activities that foster open communication and group cohesion as ways of fostering social presence as well as providing opportunities for active learning are important in every unit.
Activities that focus on or include interaction with others can support student development of a range of learning outcomes, inclusive of declarative and functioning knowledge. All of these examples could be used in either online or on campus environments.
Facilitated synchronous discussion A set of questions are provided to students for consideration prior to a scheduled session.
In small groups ofthe teacher facilitates student sharing of responses to the questions, and building upon those responses. Further questions for consideration might be introduced during the session, aimed at furthering the thinking and analysis generated from the discussion. Therefore, it is likely that familiarising yourself with literature about this will enhance the learning of your students.
Jigsaw collaborative information sharing A cohesive set of information is separated into 4 or 5 smaller parts.
For example, a written article separated by its paragraphs, a report separated by each section, a video separated into shorter clips. Students are organised into small groups, and each one is provided with one of the smaller parts of information.
Students work together to understand the information they are provided with. They also discuss and rehearse how to share this knowledge with others who do not have the information. Then, new groups are formed, each being made up of a single student from each of the original groups.
In these new groups, each 'expert' student shares their knowledge with the rest of the group who may ask questions to clarify meaning. The teacher may then pose questions for the groups to answer, ask groups to complete a task that demonstrates their understanding, provide their own summary, or take questions from the groups to help solidify understandings.
Group Assignments Students are organised into smaller groups of three or four for the entire semester, a week, a fortnight Each group has an assigned task, and each member an assigned role.
The organisation of groups, and assignment of roles can be managed either by the teacher or the students.In an educational system founded on rigid standards and categories, students who demonstrate a very specific manifestation of intelligence flourish, while those who deviate tend to fall between the cracks.
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