The Restoration Literary reactions to the political climate For some, the restoration of King Charles II in led many to a painful revaluation of the political hopes and millenarian expectations bred during two decades of civil war and republican government. For others, it excited the desire to celebrate kingship and even to turn the events of the new reign into signs of a divinely ordained scheme of things.
Similarly, some of the poets who published with the Restoration produced their poetry during the Interregnum.
The official break in literary culture caused by censorship and radically moralist standards effectively created a gap in literary tradition.
Drama had developed the late Elizabethan theatre traditions and had begun to mount increasingly topical and political plays for example, the drama of Thomas Middleton. The Interregnum put a stop, or at least a The english restoration essayto these lines of influence and allowed a seemingly fresh start for all forms of literature after the Restoration.
The last years of the Interregnum were turbulent, as were the last years of the Restoration period, and those who did not go into exile were called upon to change their religious beliefs more than once. With each religious preference came a different sort of literature, both in prose and poetry the theatres were closed during the Interregnum.
When Cromwell died and his son, Richard Cromwellthreatened to become Lord Protectorpoliticians and public figures scrambled to show themselves as allies or enemies of the new regime.
Printed literature was dominated by odes in poetry, and religious writing in prose. The industry of religious tract writing, despite official efforts, did not reduce its output. Figures such as the founder of the Society of FriendsGeorge Foxwere jailed by the Cromwellian authorities and published at their own peril.
During the Interregnum, the royalist forces attached to the court of Charles I went into exile with the twenty-year-old Charles II and conducted a brisk business in intelligence and fund-raising for an eventual return to England.
Some of the royalist ladies installed themselves in convents in Holland and France that offered safe haven for indigent and travelling nobles and allies.
The men similarly stationed themselves in Holland and France, with the court-in-exile being established in The Hague before setting up more permanently in Paris. As Holland and France in the 17th century were little alike, so the influences picked up by courtiers in exile and the travellers who sent intelligence and money to them were not monolithic.
Charles spent his time attending plays in France, and he developed a taste for Spanish plays. Those nobles living in Holland began to learn about mercantile exchange as well as the tolerant, rationalist prose debates that circulated in that officially tolerant nation. John Bramhallfor example, had been a strongly high church theologianand yet, in exile, he debated willingly with Thomas Hobbes and came into the Restored church as tolerant in practice as he was severe in argument.
Charles II When Charles II became king inthe sense of novelty in literature was tempered by a sense of suddenly participating in European literature in a way that England had not before.
Additionally, the position of Poet Laureate was recreated, complete with payment by a barrel of "sack" Spanish white wineand the requirement for birthday odes.
He was well known as a philanderer as well. Highly witty, playful, and sexually wise poetry thus had court sanction. Charles and his brother Jamesthe Duke of York and future King of England, also sponsored mathematics and natural philosophyand so spirited scepticism and investigation into nature were favoured by the court.
Charles II sponsored the Royal Societywhich courtiers were eager to join for example, the noted diarist Samuel Pepys was a memberjust as Royal Society members moved in court.
Charles and his court had also learned the lessons of exile. Charles was High Church and secretly vowed to convert to Roman Catholicism on his death and James was crypto-Catholic, but royal policy was generally tolerant of religious and political dissenters.
While Charles II did have his own version of the Test Acthe was slow to jail or persecute Puritans, preferring merely to keep them from public office and therefore to try to rob them of their Parliamentary positions. On the one hand, there was an attempt at recovering the English literature of the Jacobean periodas if there had been no disruption; but, on the other, there was a powerful sense of novelty, and authors approached Gallic models of literature and elevated the literature of wit particularly satire and parody.
The novelty would show in the literature of sceptical inquiry, and the Gallicism would show in the introduction of Neoclassicism into English writing and criticism.
Top-down history[ edit ] The Restoration is an unusual historical period, as its literature is bounded by a specific political event: Therefore, a top-down view of the literary history of the Restoration has more validity than that of most literary epochs.
This effect extended beyond his death, in some instances, and not as long as his life, in others. Poetry[ edit ] The Restoration was an age of poetry. Not only was poetry the most popular form of literature, but it was also the most significant form of literature, as poems affected political events and immediately reflected the times.
It was, to its own people, an age dominated only by the king, and not by any single genius. Throughout the period, the lyric, ariel, historical, and epic poem was being developed.
Restoration Comedy refers to English Comedies written during the Restoration period from The re-opening of the theatres in after public stage performances had been banned for 18 years by the Puritan regime signalled a renaissance of . The Restoration was a revolutionary period for both history and literature. Before the Restoration period began, England was under rule of the Protectorate. Moll Flanders and English Marriage Law - Melissa J. Ganz Crusoe in Odes of Absorption in the Restoration and Early Eighteenth Century - Margaret Koehler A "Double Portion of his Father dialogism, and Pope's Essay on Criticism - Mary Ellen Bellanca Precious to Grace: Necessary Desolation in Pope's Eloisa to Abelard - Mary Elizabeth .
The English epic[ edit ] Even without the introduction of Neo-classical criticism, English poets were aware that they had no national epic. Several poets attempted to supply this void. Sir William Davenantoperator of the first playhouse opened after the Restoration, was also a playwright and an epic poet.
Sir William Davenant was the first Restoration poet to attempt an epic. His unfinished Gondibert was of epic length, and it was admired by Hobbes.The Restoration was a revolutionary period for both history and literature.
Before the Restoration period began, England was under rule of the Protectorate. The Restoration period was a very important part of English literature and language.
It allowed the time for everything to revolutionize and give a fresh perspective to the readers then and now. This was a very important historical event also with the fall of a dictatorship- like government and the rebirth of the monarchy which still kind of. The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
It began in when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II. This followed the Interregnum, also called the Protectorate, that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Restoration Comedy refers to English Comedies written during the Restoration period from The re-opening of the theatres in after public stage performances had been banned for 18 years by the Puritan regime signalled a renaissance of .
The Meiji Restoration was a period in Japan when massive changes occurred in ancient Japan. The goal of the Meiji Restoration was summarised in the motto, " A rich country, a strong military".
/5(3). This lesson explores what is known as the Restoration era of English literature, which lasted from to about We'll look at the .